Lévaluation du travail des élèves (Les Colloques de lIREA) (French Edition)

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After debating with the locals, we get a truck for a drive to the village of Bawamataluo, located nine miles from Teluk Dalam. The roads are terrible but the trip through the jungle and the rice fields is fascinating. Kids run along with the truck. We see women working in little garden patches, near by their wooden houses. Every one smiles and waves at us. After an hour of very bumpy drive, we arrive at the foot of an impressive stone stairway. Many villagers are already there waiting for the tourists. After climbing steps, we are greeted by several warriors posted along one of the three main paved streets of the village.

The architecture of the village is remarkable. All houses have a high roof with an opening from which kids look out. The three main streets form a T and join into a large square ; the palace of the tribal chief is located at the junction, in front of the square. Higher than the other houses, the palace is also the center of the community. In front of the palace, are several stone tables. The dead used to be left there to decay. Today, the tables are used as benches! There is a lot of life in the streets : vendors, kids, weird looking brown pigs, displays of local craft and fruit for sale.

The males of the village have put on their war costumes. Wood, coconut fibers, feathers, metal, anything goes to make the costume and mask frightening. All men assemble in the square and take their position for the war dances. One man leads the group of warriors.

The dance is a mix of steps and jumps punctuated by loud shouts. The idea of the dance is to prepare the warriors for an attack and also to intimidate the enemy. The dances are followed by the stone jumping. The wall of stones is located in the middle of one street, about 8 feet tall, in front of the palace. Stone jumping used to be performed by the young, single males of the village. In order to get married, and also as a form of war training, the jumpers had to leap feet first over the wall surmounted by sharp pointing sticks.

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Today, the sticks are not used and stone jumping is mainly performed to attract the tourists. As soon as the show is over, we are surrounded by the warriors and vendors trying to sell their wood sculptures. The tourists are now leaving, so this is the last chance to make money. We stay in the village, wandering around. As soon as the last tourist has disappeared, it is funny to see the men take off their costumes and put on a T-shirt.

The suits are left to dry in front of the houses. The streets become deserted, except for the pigs and the kids playing outside. We take a walk around the village, escorted by one of the stone jumpers. He speaks a little English and offers to guide us. The cemetery is located on the outskirts of the village : all villagers are Christians which is quite uncommon in this Muslim nation. These are remnants of the Dutch colonial days. On the trail around the village, we see women carrying bananas and mangoes on their shoulders.

They are coming from the garden. Our guide does not allow us to go there : it seems that tourists in the past have damaged some trees or crops. We head back to the quiet village. It is hot. Naked kids enjoy a shower in what seems to be the communal bath and the village's only water supply.

We sit under the shade of a roof. Two kids seem intrigued by Christian's naked legs. One reaches and pulls on his hair : Indonesians are not hairy and this must be the first time that these kids have the chance to see body hair closely. We all laugh. The village is still very quiet : quite a contrast with the frenzy that took place two hours ago! More tourists are scheduled for the afternoon : there will be a second performance of war dances and stone jumping.

The village of Bawamataluo gets money for these performances and has become a tourist place : cruiseships, travel agencies organize tours of the village. The people of Nias have adapted themselves to the "modern civilization". Merci pour ce souvenir! Haiti is a truly amazing and unique island. Virgin Islands and French Martinique.

Probably because of its poverty, Haiti is not a major tourist destination. But it has an international airport, several domestic ones, thousands of miles of highway and many excellent hotels. The poorest country in Latin America, it is also one of the world's most poverty- stricken nations. Roman Catholicism is the official religion, although voodoo, with its wild rituals, is widely practiced.

The island has : wonderful beaches, rain forest, mountain ranges, gushing waterfalls and desert plains. Despite the poverty and overcrowding, the inhabitants of Haiti are always smiling, enthusiastic, creative and welcoming. Haiti, with its 10, square miles, occupies half of the island of Hispaniola. Discovered by Christopher Columbus in , Hispaniola was divided in when Spain ceded a portion to France. Slaves, brought from Africa to work the plantations, gained their independence in and renamed the area : Haiti. In , Haiti conquered the Spanish-speaking part of the island the Dominican Republic , which broke free some twenty years later.

Haiti had no less than 22 dictatorships between and Francis Duvalier Papa Doc was elected president in ; a "constitution" awarded him a lifetime term. A combination of political repression and famine from onward resulted in thousands of Haitians fleeing the country for southern Florida, often in unseaworthy boats. In Duvalier was overthrown.

The military took control, and elections were held in January amid charges of fraud.

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In June , the military again seized power. Prime minister Marc Bazin took over, but resigned too, in June Bill Clinton wants to reinstate Jean-Bertrand Aristide in order to re-establish democracy in Haiti, but made himself very unpopular with his very strong aerial and naval embargo stopping all "boat people" Haitian refugees to enter the USA.

In September another president, Robert Malval is elected. He will resign in December It is Emile Jonassaint who is, in summer 94, president, still not recognized by the international community. Haiti, with its 6. Out of a people, only 6 have access to newspapers, 9 have a telephone, 42 a radio and 5 a television set. Coffee is the chief export, bauxite and copper the main minerals.

Haiti's trading partners are the U. The majority of the island's people do not have ready access to safe drinking water, adequate medical care or sufficient food. There are only 1. Few social assistance programmes exist. The lack of employment remains one of the most critical problems facing the economy, along with deforestation, soil erosion, overpopulation and political instability. Trade sanctions applied by the Organization of American States in response to the September coup against President Aristide have had further damaging effects.

Haiti's climate is tropical and semiarid. Two-thirds of the country is mountainous. The island lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and is subject to severe storms from June to October, with occasional flooding and earthquakes. Haiti has many attractions for the tourist. In Port-au-Prince, the capital and largest city, there is the presidential palace, the arts and crafts market, the national and ethnographic museums.

Beach resorts, snorkeling, fishing and hunting abound throughout the island. Haitian voodoo is a mixture of Roman Catholic ritual, African animism and magic. Saints, local deities and venerated ancestors communicate with believers through dreams, trances and spiritual possessions. Haiti is both shocking and appealing. Despite the harsh economic situation, the people have an amazing exuberance for life. The best place to start the visit is Cap Haitien. It has a small airport linked daily to Port-au-Prince. Cap Haitien has managed to preserve its old fashioned charm of paved streets, stone walls and grassy gardens.

How wonderful to walk along the tranquil sea shore.

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Comme des pattes de saintbernard. We stress out five principles that we think should be followed to explore the HMD-based visual analytics design space, before introducing ongoing work within the IDEA project. Rapport sur l? The transport of the paper for the next exposure is motor driven. Haiti's climate is tropical and semiarid. Ils ont chacun un mandat de deux ans.

This military hero declared himself king of the north and west after the independence. While the rest of the country became an official republic, Cap Haitien fell under the power of this megalomaniac tyrant, who had extravagant architectural dreams. He filled the palace with tapestries, paintings and crystal chandeliers. He had the floors lined with marble and the walls with ebony.

The best time of day to enjoy the strange beauty of these ruins nowadays is very early morning, when the path to the summit is still enrobed in tropical mist.

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The only way to get to the top is on horse back chaperoned by guides. Mist, palm trees, nestling villages… what a ride! Another of Christophe's wild schemes : it took , slaves ten years to build. Canons from France, England and Spain are aligned along the parapets. They were never fired. Iron balls decorate the damp stones. The French invasion failed to happen and the dictator-king, abandoned by his troops, shot himself in the head according to legend with a gold bullet. Back to Cap Haitien, it is wonderful to stroll through the magic of its narrow streets.

Local artists exhibit everywhere. There is an amazing consistency of styles : the naive, colourful paintings evoke paradise on earth. Haitian art is now recognized the world over. Paintings are becoming collectors' items and Haiti's wood carvings are acquiring international renown. Unlike the poorly-made, mass-produced tourist products of the Bahamas, Jamaica and Puerto Rico, Haitian art is still the genuine article.

As everywhere, bargaining is common place : start at half the offered price and keep on negotiating. It is a ritual and expected. No offence intended. However some street vendors and most beggars refuse to take no for an answer and will pursue you for miles, following you inside other shops, to your hotel, for a few "gourdes". The best way to avoid this is to get a street guide , usually a young boy, to accompany you. He will escort you, clear beggars and vendors and even bargain for you. You must tip him of course. Haitian cities are exhausting.

There is the heat, the noise, the dust, the constant haggling. As soon as you want something, two dozen people rush forward to serve you. Occasionally fights break out over your favours. One trade impressed me greatly. Taxi drivers have a strict code of ethics.

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As soon as you emerge from a hotel, shop or airport, drivers clamour to get the ride. The effect is overwhelming. You choose one at random to escape the hell, and the others stop. No more hassling. Compare this to the Bahamas or Jamaica! More relaxing are the magnificent western beaches. Cornier has tourist facilities, including scuba diving, while Coco and Ibo are totally unspoiled.

White sand and crystal clear water. The scuba is disappointing, for one simple reason : there are no fish. The colourful Caribbean reef fish is not edible by normal standards, but starving and industrious Haitian fishermen catch them for food and deplete the reefs.

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Mar 19, - Ce colloque se déroulera autour du thème et des sous-thèmes de la conception à l'évaluation, de l'école maternelle à l'université. In Gueudet G. et Trouche L. (Eds), Ressources Vives Le travail Les interactions mathématiques entre professeurs et élèves: Édition des archives contemporaines. L'évaluation nationale des progrès des élèves[link] Ce travail considérable qui a eu un grand retentissement dans le monde de l'éducation au .. migrants en France est sorti de l'ombre pour donner naissance à nombre de colloques, on lira avec grand intérêt le numéro spécial d'Education et Développement consacré.

From Coco Beach you can hire an old canvas sailboat and go to Labadie, an isolated Haitian village and beach taken over one day a week by a giant Royal Caribbean Cruise Line vessel for a beach party. The natives greet you : "-Bonjour, blanc! This is not a racist statement. White means stranger here. Highly exciting is a visit to the back country : isolated villages, lush forests, waterfalls. No plastic, no beggars, no hassle. Only immense beauty, in the landscape as in the people.

A precarious, lengthy and hot jeep ride, followed by a three hour hike through the tropical rain forest, ends at a waterfall of overwhelming splendour for a well deserved and cooling dip. Back to Port-au-Prince, teeming with life. The spice and food markets are a veritable treat with their colourful displays, exotic smells and haggling voices.

Manioc bread is cooked right in front of you. Meat is sold in the open air. In the heat it is covered in flies. The slaughter house is public. There are few intermediaries : producers usually sell their own wares. The coal market is a sight not to be missed. Charcoal is the main fuel for cooking since there is little gas, oil or electricity. As a result deforestation is intense and dramatic. It is the same old story : trees are being cut down at a much faster rate than their growth, so the future is grim. The coal market is black indeed! And very crowded.

A maze of narrow streets, baskets and carts everywhere, fast transactions, a reek of pungent smells. The white tourist does not go unnoticed and quickly attracts an escort of kids and beggars. The water supply is a major problem in the towns. Most people do not have running water in their homes.

They must go to the nearest pump and queue, then carry the heavy buckets back. Many wash naked in the sewage water in the street. Still, there are some luxurious places in Port-au-Prince : hotels, air conditioned shops, official buildings. The attractive rum factory Barbancourt is one such place and exports its rum world wide. Some of the sights are incredible : communal transport is the Tap-Tap, a sort of van, usually 30 years old and always breaking down. Colourfully painted and decorated with mostly religious icons, the Tap-Taps are always crowded, with people, bags, live animals jammed onto the steps and roofs.

The traffic in the towns is always impossible. There are jams everywhere : hordes of pedestrians, an amazing medley of motor, man or horse drawn vehicles, a cacophony of hooting horns. A cockfight is a great attraction in Haiti, for the locals and the tourists alike. Favourite animals are lovingly cared for and trained for years. The placing of bets on the winning chicken drives people to extremes.

The Caribbean island of Haiti is completely African in its population and culture. African slaves were brought in during the sixteenth century and put to work on the plantations. Despite gaining its independence in , Haiti failed to prosper. Its neighbours, still supported by their colonisers fared better : Puerto Rico, French Martinique and the U.

Virgin Islands are thriving and British Grand Cayman is a world banking center. Even the Spanish occupied Dominican Republic, which shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti, is better off. Over population is a major problem. This is an obvious result of Catholicism, which remains strong in Haiti. The island's natural resources simply cannot support 6. Haitians are not lazy : on the contrary they are hard working and ingenious. I wonder how they feel when they see "wealthy" tourists, not always ingenious and often lazy, spending more on a hotel room for the night than their three months salary.

How can they still believe in their Catholic gods? This world is not a just one. Yet Haitians are mostly helpful to foreigners and each other, frequently cheerful and observant of the rules of social conduct. The crime rate excluding the political is very low. A telling lesson to many of the world's rich nations. Shocking or fascinating, always thought provoking, Haiti is well worth a visit. Page 61 : Presse.

Mes tarifs sont en bas de la page. An extension of myself, if you will. This magical object is a tool that has the power to freeze a moment for eternity. Les Nadar? Will Paris burn? Pouvez-vous nous trouver? A mural will be presented that combines his portraits of hundreds of individuals, giving a face to the full and complex spectrum of views on guns in America. In three US cities profoundly affected by guns—Dallas, St. Louis, and Washington, DC—we invited people to share their views, describe their experiences, and search for common ground.

We met hunters and activists, teachers and police officers, parents and children. Individuals were filmed in slow motion interacting with someone else in the mural, creating a living artwork that vividly depicts the issue. Each side of the issue is represented by individuals and groups sharing their stories and visual interactions.

On a broader level, the live mural will be projected all around the country and will be made available to the public to use as a tool for gathering communities and creating meaningful dialogue. Ce que les stars voient. Anne-Laure Jacquart au stand Eyrolles. Une de mes anciennes assistantes.

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This is a fake photo: do not call me if your house is on fire. They change the way you view Serialization and Traceability technology in the Pharmaceuticals Industry! Il est connu en anglais comme fog bow.

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Sur les collines, les montagnes et les brumes froides de la mer il est possible de voir cet arc blanc. A Thenon les Bains. Pages Front Matter Pages Public Language Policy and the Revitalisation of Basque. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction This edited volume presents an analysis of the evolution of French language policies and their impact on French regional languages and their communities.

The chapters tackle different aspects of language endangerment and language planning and adopt varied theoretical and methodological approaches. Education - Sciences de l'information et de la communication - Linguistique. Navigation Accueil. Guides utilisateurs. Guide de l'administrateur. Guide du coordinateur.

Guide du gestionnaire. Nador, Maroc avr. Premiers retours sur les mobilisations de et leurs effets Tunis, Tunisie avr. Dakhla, Maroc avr. Paris, France 12 avr. Paris, France avr. Biarritz, France 31 mars-4 avr. Enjeux sociaux, analyses critiques et perspectives scientifiques Rennes, France 30 janv.

Champs sur Marne, France janv. Mutations contemporaines des territoires, mises en ressource des paysages et rec Tours, France janv. Toulouse, France janv. NUTRA : Economie des plateformes, travail, emploi et organisations : perspectives juridiques et approche comparative Bordeaux, France nov. Paris, France 27 nov. Strasbourg, France nov.